Based on our very productive meeting in Delft and out of the necessity to deliver definitions necessary for the whole group, we have developed this new section allowing you to comment on the tentative definitions that were shared among us before . We urge you to contribute by either adding a comment that you agree with a given definition, or add an alternative if you have ideas how definitions should be altered. Please do so by mid September (Deadline: September 16th 2016). Working group 1 will then make a revision of the definitions, and upload these.

We depend on your contribution, and look very much forward to it. We are strong as a group. Let us live up to this challenge.

Multidisciplinary

Definitions of multidisciplinarity vary. It is clear that multidisciplinary research spans different disciplines but not that it necessarily integrates work from different disciplines, thich thus do not have a clear exchange with each other. It is however not uncommon that scholars use multidiscplinary and interdisciplinary interchangeably.

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Interdisciplinary

Definitions of interdisciplinary vary. It is clear that this is research that spans across different disciplines and may create interaction between these different disciplines, and these disciplines may opt for a clear integration or collaboration. In addition, these can have common goals and aims, or collaborate on the creation of joint solutions. While some researchers recognize the relevance of extra-academic knowledge here, we propose that this is not essential.

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Transdisciplinary

Definitions of transdisciplinarity vary. It is clear that this is research that spans across different disciplines and knowledge domains, and may create interaction between these different disciplines, and these disciplines may opt for a clear integration or collaboration. In addition, these can have common goals and aims, or collaborate on the creation of joint solutions. Extra-academic knowledge is often seen as important in transdisciplinary research, and may serve as the main distinguishing factor compared to interdisciplinarity, although there is no consensus about this.

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Common goal

A common goal can serve as a boundary object towards interdisciplinarity. While not considered to be mandatory by some, it can be an important catalyst in order to make interdisciplinary collaboration more concrete, and ultimately even more goal orientated.

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Understanding of problems

A reflection of problems with the goal to gaining enough insight to enable further action within a research process.

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Integration

Integration is an abundantly used principle which describes how different models and frameworks, data sources, analyses and combine results between different knowledge domains. It is unclear at which level of research or a project integration is ideally realized, or if it necessary at all stages. Integration can aid unity and coherence within a project or research group.

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Interface between academic and practice

Describes the nexus between academic and extra-academics This is typically not a very precise description, and is typically used in this fashion.

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Collaborative problem framing

Collaborative problem framing identification and structuring of the real-world problem. Conceptualization of a methodological framework enabling the reintegration of knowledge.

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Contrasting disciplines

This notion would demand that disciplines can be ranked across a continuous of not continuous typology. An example of this would be different forms of knowledge, i.e. academic vs. Extra-academic knowledge. If this is possible, contrasting disciplines can be choosen according to the identified problems to solve and objectives to achieve.

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Perspectives

Individuals have different perspectives, and groups of individuals often share a set of perspectives based on a shared mindset or background. The frictions between these groups that are characterized by specific perspectives can be termed as barriers. Integrated perspectives can be helpful in order to gain diverse perspectives.

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Target knowledge

Target knowledge refers to the scope of action and problem-solving measures given by the natural constraints, social laws, norms and values within the system, and the interests of actors and their individual intentions (Jahn, 2008). Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of desired target states, potential risks and benefits under prevailing uncertainties is needed. Thereby target knowledge determines the plausible system development (ProClim, 1997).

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Solution orientated

Describes a framework or approach where different actors -if necessary including intra- and extra-academics- work together towards a joined solution.

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Intensity of involvement of extra-academics

The category intensity of involvement includes four types: information (i), consultation (ii), collaboration (iii) and…

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Extra-academic knowledge

All knowledge outside of academia. However, one needs to recognize where knowledge is created, and…

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Mutual learning

Describes a learning process, where intra- and extra-academics learn together, typically towards a joined problem,…

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Implementation-Partners

These are partners what implement knowledge. Since it is rather unclear whether these are extra-academics,…

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Practitioners

This term is often used to characterize extra-academics. Other schools of thinking apply this term…

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Participatory settings

These include all modes of research that enable information, integration, collaboration of empowerment of extra-academics.

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Real world problem

A suggestion for a phenomenon outside of the hemisphere of academia. Partly misleading, since science…

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Stakeholder

This term should be avoided, yet is very abundant in the available literature. It describes…

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Wicked problems

Wicked problems are typically multifaceted and complex, impeding comprehensive understanding and demanding solutions beyond mere…

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Transformation knowledge

Transformation knowledge refers to the practical implications that can be derived from target knowledge to…

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Societal problems

Problems of the social dimensions of a system. Solving these problems may create a process…

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System knowledge

System knowledge refers to the observation of the context of a given system and interpretation…

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System

A system is an interconnected set of elements that can produce specific outcomes.  The elements…

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Knowledge domains

Different forms of knowledge can be formalized in order to create typologies. These typologies can…

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Transgression

While this word originally indicates violations of existing rules or norms, it is often used…

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Trust

May describe the ability of an actor to allow actions to be taken by another…

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Negotiation

Research processes can be negotiated and code of conducts have proven valuable in the past.

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Reflexivity

Research needs to be able to gain reflecting perspectives, which can be both internal (albeit…

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